Are you looking to land that dream job in IoT systems? Then it’s time you started prepping for it. And since IoT systems require people well versed in designing, installing, and managing them, here is the list of the top IoT interview questions and answers to help you comprehend the fundamental concepts.
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IoT Interview Questions And Answers For Freshers
What is IoT or The Internet of Things?
The earliest internet iteration was nothing more than a network of interconnected computer systems. As the internet grew, so did phones, office equipment, and industrial gear. Today almost any device we use in our homes, businesses, factories, or on our bodies can be online and connected. That’s why we call it the Internet of “things.”
IoT or the internet of things is a key 21st-century technology. It is a network of “things” integrated with software, electronics, a network, and sensors that collect and exchange data. It gives people, processes, and things seamless communication by connecting kitchen appliances, autos, thermostats, and baby monitors to the internet using embedded gadgets.
The Key Features Of IoT
- IoT is all about connectivity. Without flawless connection, the IoT ecosystem (sensors, compute engines, data hubs, etc.) cannot function properly. Radio waves, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and Li-Fi can connect IoT devices.
- Analyzing/Sensing: Once everything is connected, evaluate data to produce business intelligence. Extracting insight from created data is crucial. A sensor generates data, but it’s useless unless we analyze it.
- Passive interactions with linked technologies are common. IoT connects different products, cross-platform technology, and services. Cloud computing with blockchain facilitates IoT engagements.
- Daily, more elements connect to the IoT zone. IoT installations should be expandable. The massive data created should be managed properly.
- IoT makes mobile phones, wearables, vehicles, etc. smart by using data collection, AI algorithms, and networked technologies. If your coffee machine’s beans run out, it will order more from your preferred merchant.
The Major Components Of IoT
Sensors: Sensors connect IoT devices to the real world. They collect live data from the surroundings. This data may be a temperature sensor, GPS, or accelerometer on your phone, or a live video function on social media.
Connectivity: All the collected data is uploaded to the cloud. Using mobile or satellite networks, Bluetooth, WI-FI, WAN, etc., sensors could be connected to the cloud. IoT devices employ different connections.
Data Processing: Data processors process collected data once it reaches the cloud. Data processing software may improve IoT devices in many ways, from adjusting air conditioner temperatures to identifying faces on phones.
User Interface: A User Interface connects IoT devices to users. A user interface is an IoT system’s visible, tactile component. It involves providing information to the end-user. A well-designed UI simplifies the user experience and encourages interaction. End-users need information, such as email or text message notifications.
How Does IoT Work
It is the AI that drives the IoT devices. And the components making up the IoT include sensors, a cloud component, data processing software, and highly advanced user interfaces.
IoT systems include connected sensors/devices. A quad-core Raspberry Pi can act as an IoT “Internet gateway.” It’s a card-sized computer that can control outputs with GIPO pins and collect sensor data. A sensor sends real-time data to the cloud. Once the data enters the cloud, the software can decide what to do, such as issue an alert or automatically modify sensors/devices.
If users need to submit information or check on the system, they use a user interface. Adjustments made by the user are transferred from the user interface to the cloud and then back to the sensors/devices. Creating a responsive and intuitive device enhances automation.
What Are The IoT Benefits
An IoT system uses networking, big data, sensing, and AI to give a full solution. And the advantages are:
- IoT automates tasks, improving customer engagement. Sensors on an automobile immediately detect problems. The driver and manufacturer will be contacted.
- With IoT-boosted technology efficiency, even ancient “dumb” gadgets can transfer data over the internet. That allows them to communicate with people and other IoT-enabled devices. Smart coffee makers, toys, microwaves, etc are a few examples.
- IoT makes real-time data accessible from (nearly) anywhere. You need an internet-connected smart device.
- IoT gives real-time insights that lead to more efficient resource management.
- By collecting and analyzing network data, you can generate new business opportunities and cut costs.
- Overall, IoT saves time. While commuting, we can read the news, browse a hobby blog, or shop online.
- Access control systems can improve security using IoT. IoT technology in surveillance can improve security standards and identify questionable activity.
Risks Involved With IoT
Security is vital for any organization. So it’s important to understand the security risks involved with IoT.
- IoT gadgets are hackable. Many IoT devices communicate personal data without encryption, making it easier for hackers to access. Hackers can target servers via cloud endpoints.
- Insufficient testing & outdated: In a fast-paced market like IoT, many companies release goods and software without appropriate testing. Many don’t update quickly. IoT devices aren’t updated, making them vulnerable to data theft. To preserve security, IoT devices should be thoroughly inspected and updated as new vulnerabilities are found.
- People don’t know much about IoT despite its growth. User ignorance of IoT’s possibilities is a big security risk. This threatens everyone.
- Many IoT devices struggle with network access. Especially if devices are distributed, in faraway areas, or bandwidth is constrained.
- Due to the scattered nature of IoT devices, ensuring reliability can be problematic. Natural disasters, cloud service disruptions, power outages, and system failures can affect IoT components.
IoT Interview Questions And Answers For Experienced Candidates
What Is An IoT Gateway
An IoT gateway is a device or software program that supports communications between IoT devices and the network that transmits device data to a centralized platform, such as the public cloud.
IoT gateways connect IoT devices to one another and the cloud, transforming communication and analyzing data to provide usable information. They may incorporate IoT communication-enhancing capabilities like caching, buffering, filtering, data purification, or data aggregation.
IoT gateways are used to:
- Device pairing
- Cloud connectivity
- Communicating IoT
- Data Filtering
- Minimizing security risks, etc.
Explain Raspberry Pi And The GPIO Pins
Raspberry Pi is a card-sized computer having GPIO pins, WiFi, and Bluetooth to connect to external devices. Combining IoT with Raspberry Pi helps businesses adopt the technology.
General-purpose I/O (GPIO) is a standard interface used by Raspberry Pi and other microcontrollers. One of the main advantages of Raspberry Pi GPIO pins is that IoT developers may control them through software, making them adaptable and able to serve specific IoT needs.
IoT vs IIoT
IoT stands for “Internet of Things,” any electronic equipment that can connect to the internet and send data to a remote data server (IoT). Whereas, IIoT or the Industrial Internet of Things refers to the IoT devices that are used for industrial reasons. You can say that IIoT is a subset of IoT.
So, let’s see how different IIoT and IoT are from each other.
- IIoT enables applications that are geared toward industry, including manufacturing, power plants, oil & gas, etc.
IoT supports consumer-focused applications including wearables, machines, and robotics.
- With IIoT, the emphasis is on massive networks.
With IoT, the emphasis is on networks of a small size.
- IIoT uses both wired and wireless communication channels.
IoT mostly uses wireless communication techniques.
- IIoT can handle massive data.
IoT copes with medium- to high-volume data.
- IIoT is a B2B (business-to-business) transaction, aiming to boost production facilities’ productivity and security.
IoT is a B2C (business-to-consumer) transaction aiming to improve the convenience of consumers’ lives.
Explain MQTT Protocol And Bluegiga APX4 Protocol
MQTT (Message Queue Telemetry Transport Protocol) is a publish/subscribe message protocol for low-bandwidth networks and high-latency IoT devices (delay in data transmission). This protocol reduces network bandwidth, device resource needs, and supply security. These concepts also benefit IoT or M2M devices, since battery life and bandwidth are crucial. MQTT can monitor or regulate a vast volume of data because it’s efficient and lightweight. MQTT is used in automotive, manufacturing, telephony, oil, and gas.
Bluegiga APx4 is a low-power wireless SoM (SOM). It’s a perfect gateway development platform since it has Wi-Fi, Bluetooth 4.0, ARM, and Linux. Wireless and BLE can coexist without interference due to coexistence standards. The Bluegiga Apx4 supports Wi-Fi and Bluetooth and has a 450mhz Arm9 processor.
Why Is IoT Device Management Important?
IoT device management involves provisioning, authenticating, setting, monitoring, and maintaining IoT devices and software. To manage IoT devices, the following four things are to be kept in mind.
- IoT devices can be attacked simply because their network is on the Internet. Provisioning and authenticating devices fix this issue. Provisioning modifies a device’s factory configuration to work with your network. Authentication ensures that only authorized devices are enrolled to prevent invasions and secure data.
- Configure a new device before using it. Control and configure devices after deployment to guarantee performance, security, and operation. This will help implement control.
- If there are software flaws or other issues, the device may go down. For this, consumers must constantly monitor their devices. Device management helps diagnose and solve these issues fast.
- A device must be updated and maintained for flawless operation. This may involve new features. Good device management requires securely updating and maintaining remote device software.
Takeaway (IoT Interview Questions)
For IoT systems deployment and maintenance a candidate with the right skill set and IoT understanding is chosen by the IT leaders. Hence, they prepare a set of IoT interview questions to ask the prospective employees and seek the ones with ideal answers.
The top IoT Interview Questions and Answers listed in this post give candidates the information they need to meet the Internet of Things requirements and crack the IoT interview.